phantasms from early 20th century
Thanks to John Durham Peters for clarifying that problems of authenticity have of course not appeared with digital media technologies: "The ability of persons to "appear" apart from the flesh was perhaps the most unnerving thing about new audiovisual media" (Speaking into the air: 142). J.D. Peters elaborates on various lineages of understanding communication. I find some parts of the book rather difficult. After reading Friedrich Kittler's Gramophone, Film, Typewriter last year, Peter's writings about phantasms and doppelgängers at least don't seem as strange as it did when I struggled to understand Kittler writing about the same things.